Hysterectomies are performed for a wide range of conditions, including fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, pelvic pain, genital prolapse, malignant and pre-malignant cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer . The surgery can result in the relief or reduction of pain, heavy bleeding, and/or discomfort. Drawbacks to hysterectomies include infertility and increased risk of infection. Hysterectomy involving bilateral ovary removal results in premature menopause and associated health problems, such as osteoporosis, possible heart-health problems, insomnia, and hot flushes . Most hysterectomies are elective and are performed to improve the quality of life rather than out of necessity .
The hysterectomy rate has steadily decreased from 484 in 1997 to 346 in 2005 . The decrease in hysterectomy rates may be explained in part by the development of alternative procedures such as: endometrial ablation, myomectomy, colporrhaphy, laparoscopic or vaginal suspension, uterine artery embalization, uterine balloon therapy, resection of cul-de-sac obliteration or pharmacological treatments/supplements to name a few [9-11]. A radical trachelectomy is another recent technique used to preserve fertility among women with cervical cancer. The decreasing hysterectomy rate may also reflect women’s changing preference towards less invasive procedures for gynecological conditions, and in response, more careful screening and outpatient management .