Women live longer than men and they live longer now than they ever have before . Women’s longevity, however, is closely related to their socio-economic status. Women’s life expectancy is compromised by low income, reducing their longevity by as much as 5 years [1, 2]. As women overall have a greater burden of chronic disease and disability in their later years, life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy are affected by women’s experience of chronic pain , chronic diseases [7, 8] , smoking habits  and non-clinical factors such as migration .
HALE measures demonstrate that living longer is not the same as a healthy end of life. Sex differences in life expectancy close significantly when HALE is measured: 1.7 years for Canada in 2001, (and 2.1 years difference in Manitoba, for example), highlighting the gendered nature of women’s longevity .