The gendered combination of working conditions and non-work responsibilities affect women’s health [7,19]. A focus on women’s ability to bear children (whatever their intentions) has kept women out of well-paid manufacturing jobs (where men’s reproductive hazards typically were ignored) and in traditionally-female ones where chemical hazards were ignored or accepted .
While men’s job hazards usually include chemicals, forceful exertions, and vibration, women’s work is likely to be repetitive, monotonous, and stressful. Gendered job segregation leads to different tasks and hazards for women compared to men with the same job title . Women also report unclear job and/or task requirements, multi-dimensional constraints and isolation in terms of their labour relationships and coping strategies . When men dominate decision-making positions in hierarchal workplaces, vertical segregation takes a toll on those in female-dominated jobs with low status/authority  Women’s concerns also are often de-legitimised: they have “mass psychogenic illness” or are “natural” complainers at work , while young men generally do not complain about pain and fatigue at work to prove they can do the job .
Sexual harassment and discrimination also contribute to chemical exposures. For example, female firefighters have won complaints that included lack of proper clean-up facilities and interference with fire hoses that jeopardized their safety and health . Female construction workers report similar discrimination .