Clinical depression is typically diagnosed when feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, sadness, disappointment, and/or emptiness last for several weeks and interfere with an individual’s work and social life . Bipolar disorder, formerly referred to as manic depression, is a type of clinical depression that results in extreme mood fluctuations . Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of clinical depression that appears at certain times of the year, most noticeably during the winter months when individuals have less exposure to natural light . Depression during the postpartum period can include the baby blues (occurs in 50-80% of women, starts within 1 to 3 days after delivery, and may last from a few days up to a number of weeks), postpartum depression (occurs in 3-30% of women and may occur anytime between birth and 6 months post-partum and last for up to one year), or postpartum psychosis (a more severe form of depression that occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 births) .
Depression often results in changes to sleeping and eating patterns, difficulty concentrating, loss of interest in usual activities, and decreased sex drive, to name a few symptoms. Women experience higher rates of depression than men with estimates that women experience depression 2 to 3 times more than men .